Pronoun: Definition, Types & Uses With Examples

Pronoun: Definition, Types & Uses With Examples

Definition: A pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun.

परिभाषा: संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयुक्त होनेवाला शब्द “सर्वनाम” कहलाता है.

List of Pronouns (Types)

There are mainly 6 types of Pronouns,

Personal Pronoun

Indefinite Pronoun

Distributive Pronoun

Reflexive Pronoun

Relative Pronoun

Reciprocal Pronoun

Personal Pronoun (Definition, Uses With Examples)

The order of Personal Pronoun in any sentence is “2,3,1”, i.e. 2nd Person, 3rd Person, 1st Person.

सामान्यतः किसी भी वाक्य में Personal Pronoun का क्रम (Order) “2,3,1” अर्थात् 2nd Person, 3rd Person, 1st Person का होता है,

Example: You, she, and I have to go there.

Note: But in case of confession of sin, fault, or mistake this sequence changes to “1,2,3”

परन्तु पाप, दोष या भूल स्वीकार करने की स्थिति में यह क्रम “1,2,3” में बदल जाता है,

Example: I, You, and he are responsible for the loss.

Uses of Personal Pronoun

RULE: 1

In any sentence, the Pronoun of Objective Case is used after “Preposition and Let

किसी भी वाक्य में “Preposition एवं Let” के बाद Objective Case के Pronoun का प्रयोग किया जाता है,

Example:

  1. She was annoyed with you and him.
  2. Let him and me go out.

RULE: 2

Nominative Case is used after Than if the comparison is between two Nominatives, but if the comparison is between two Objects, then Objective Case is used.

Than के बाद Nominative Case का प्रयोग होता है, यदि तुलना (Comparison) दो Nominative के बीच हो, परन्तु यदि तुलना दो Objects के बीच हो, तो Objective Case का प्रयोग होता है,

Example:

  1. He is taller than she.
  2. They like her more than me.

Indefinite Pronoun (Types & Uses With Examples)

Indefinite Pronouns are – Some, All, One, No one, Nobody, Everyone, Anyone, Someone, Anybody, Somebody, etc.

Uses of Indefinite Pronouns

RULE: 1

Some and, Pronouns made from it are used in Affirmative Sentence, while Any and Pronouns formed from it are used in Negative Sense.

Some तथा इससे बने Pronouns का प्रयोग Affirmative Sentence में होता है, जबकि Any तथा इससे बने Pronouns का प्रयोग Negative Sense में होता है,

Example:

  1. He has read some of these books.
  2. He hasn’t read any of those books.

RULE: 2

If One is used as the subject of a sentence, then for this, Nominative – One, Adjective – One, Possessive – One’s, and Oneself are used for Reflexive.

One का प्रयोग यदि वाक्य के Subject के रूप में हो, तो इसके लिए, Nominative – One, Adjective – One, Possessive – One’s तथा Reflexive के लिए Oneself का प्रयोग होता है.

Example:

  1. One should do one’s duty.
  2. One must avail oneself of every good opportunity.

Distributive Pronoun (Definition, Uses With Examples)

Distributive Pronouns are: Each, Either, Neither

Uses of Distributive Pronouns

RULE: 1

Each is used for two or more.

Each का प्रयोग दो या दो से अधिक के लिए किया जाता है,

Example:

  1. Each of the two men has a car.
  2. Each of the guests was given a gift.

RULE: 2

Either and Neither are used only for two, for more than two, Any/ Anybody and None are used in place of Either.

Either एवं Neither का प्रयोग सिर्फ दो के लिए किया जाता है, दो से अधिक के लिए Either के स्थान पर Any/ Anyone और Neither के स्थान पर None का प्रयोग किया जाता है,

Example:

  1. Neither of those two boys can come in.
  2. None of those five boys can come in.

Reflexive Pronouns (Definition, Uses With Examples)

Reflexive Pronouns are: Myself, Himself, Itself, Yourself, Ourselves, Herself

Uses of Reflexive Pronouns

RULE: 1

Reflexive Pronouns are not used as the subject of the sentence.

Reflexive Pronouns का प्रयोग वाक्य के Subject के रूप में नहीं किया जाता है,

Example:

  1. You and myself are going to Mumbai [Incorrect]
  2. You and I are going to Mumbai [Correct]

RULE: 2

If a male or, female sex is not known from a child, infant, or baby then the Reflexive Pronoun “Itself” is used for this.

Child, Infant, Baby से Male या Female Sex का पता न हो तो, इसके लिए Reflexive Pronoun “Itself” का प्रयोग किया जाता है

Example:

  • The baby has hurts itself.

RULE: 3

An Object or Reflexive Pronoun is used after absent, pride, satisfy, enjoy, cheat, busy, introduce, etc.

Absent, Pride, Satisfy, Enjoy, Cheat, Busy, Introduce आदि Verbs के बाद एक Object या फिर Reflexive Pronoun का प्रयोग किया जाता है,

Example:

  1. I introduced myself to the manager.
  2. She absented herself from the office.

RULE: 4

The words Everyone, Someone, Anyone, No one, Somebody, Anybody, etc are Common Gender Pronouns, for which “Reflexive Pronoun” is used.

But “Herself” is used to indicate Females.

Everyone, Someone, Anyone, No one, Somebody, Anybody, आदि शब्द Common Gender के Pronouns हैं, इनके लिए Reflexive Pronoun “Himself” का प्रयोग किया जाता है.

परन्तु Female को इंगित करने के लिए “Herself” का प्रयोग किया जाता है.

Relative Pronouns (Definition, Uses With Examples)

Relative Pronouns are: Who, Whom, Whose, Which, That

Uses of Relative Pronouns

RULE: 1

Who is used for Human Beings and Which is used for Things.

Who का प्रयोग मानव (Human Beings) के लिए तथा Which का प्रयोग वस्तु (Things) के लिए किया जाता है,

Example:

  1. This is the girl who came yesterday.
  2. The shirt which is in her hand is mine.

RULE: 2

That can be used for both mankind or thing, that is, in place of Who or Which.

That का प्रयोग मानव जाति या वस्तु दोनों के लिए अर्थात, Who या Which के स्थान पर किया जा सकता है,

Example:

  1. This is the girl that came yesterday.
  2. The shirt that is in her hand is mine.

RULE: 3

Who is used in Nominative Case, that is, it is followed by a verb, while Whom is used in Objective Case and is not followed by a verb.

Who का प्रयोग Nominative Case में होता है, अर्थात इसके बाद Verb आता है, जबकि Whom का प्रयोग Objective Case में होता है और इसके बाद Verb नहीं आता है,

Example:

  1. The man who is at the door wants to meet you.
  2. The lady whom you met last night is my teacher.

RULE: 4

Superlative Degree, Only, None, All (In the sense of everything) that is used after “the same

Superlative Degree, Only, None, All (Everything के अर्थ में) “the same” के बाद that का ही प्रयोग होता है,

Example:

  1. He is the tallest boy that I have seen.
  2. All that glitters is not gold.

Reciprocal Pronoun (Definition, Uses With Examples)

Reciprocal Pronouns are: Each other, One another

Uses of Reciprocal Pronouns

RULE

In modern English usage, no main difference is considered between the use of Each other and One another, but from the point of view of examination, it is necessary to note that each other is used only for two and One another is used for more than two.

आधुनिक प्रयोग में Each other एवं One another के प्रयोग में कोई मुख्य अंतर नहीं माना जाता है, परन्तु परीक्षा के दृष्टिकोण से यह ध्यान रखना आवश्यक है कि Each other का प्रयोग केवल दो के लिए एवं One another का प्रयोग दो से अधिक के लिए किया जाता है.

And Finally, Pronoun (Types and Their Uses)

इस प्रकार ऊपर वर्णित 6 महत्वपूर्ण Pronoun के प्रकार एवं उनके उपयोग के नियमों को ध्यान में रखते हुए आप परीक्षा में पूछे जानेवाले प्रश्नों के सही उत्तर दे पाने में सक्षम हो पायेंगे.

इसके अतिरिक्त भी अन्य नियमों का उल्लेख आगे के Chapter में किया जाएगा, अगर आपको यह जानकारी उपयोगी लगी, तो इसे Facebook एवं Whatsapp पर अपने प्रतिस्पर्धी दोस्तों के साथ अवश्य शेयर करें…

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